Isotopes - Isotopes of Hydrogen, Uranium Carbon and Chlorine - Home of Knowledge

Isotopes – Isotopes of Hydrogen, Uranium Carbon and Chlorine

ISOTOPES: The atoms of an element that have same atomic number but different mass number are known as isotopes. “OR” The atoms of an element that have same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons are called isotopes.

“OR”  Atoms of the same element having same chemical properties but different chemical properties are called isotopes.

*** These have same number of electrons so their electronic configuration and chemical properties are same but they differ in physical properties.

Examples: 1) Isotopes of Hydrogen: There are three isotopes of hydrogen.

i) Protium (1H1) :This isotope of hydrogen has 1 proton, 1 electron and no neutrons. Atomic number is 1 and mass number is also 1.

ii) Deutrium (1H2):This isotope of hydrogen has 1 proton, 1 electron and 1 neutron. Atomic number is 1 and mass number is 2.

iii) Tritium (1H3): This isotope of hydrogen has 1 proton, 1 electron and 2 neutrons. It has atomic number 1 and atomic mass 3.

2) Isotopes of Carbon:

There are 3 isotopes of Carbon.

i) Carbon-12 (6C12) : This isotope of Carbon has 6 proton, 6 electron and 6 neutrons. Atomic number is 6 and mass number is also 12.

ii) Carbon-13 (6C13) : This isotope of Carbon has 6 proton, 6 electron and 7 neutrons. Atomic number is 6 and mass number is also 13.

iii) Carbon-14 (6C14) : This isotope of Carbon has 6 proton, 6 electron and 8 neutrons. Atomic number is 6 and mass number is also 14.

 

3) Isotopes of Chorine: There are two isotopes of chlorine.

i) Chlorine-35 (17Cl35) : This isotope of Chlorine has 17 proton, 17 electron and 18 neutrons. Atomic number is 17 and mass number is also 35.

ii) Chlorine-35 (17Cl37)  : This isotope of Chlorine has 17 proton, 17 electron and 20 neutrons. Atomic number is 17 and mass number is also 37.

  • Isotopes of Uranium:

There are three isotopes of uranium.

i) Uranium-234 (92U234) : This isotope of Uranium has 92 proton, 92 electron and 142 neutrons. Atomic number is 92 and mass number is also 234.

ii) Uranium-235 : (92U235) : This isotope of Uranium has 92 proton, 92 electron and 143 neutrons. Atomic number is 92 and mass number is also 235.

iii) Uranium- 238 : (92U238) : This isotope of Uranium has 92 proton, 92 electron and 146 neutrons. Atomic number is 92 and mass number is also 238.

 

Symbol Atomic Number Mass Number No. of Proton No. of Neutron
1H 1 1 1 0
2H 1 2 1 1
3H 1 3 1 2
12C 6 12 6 6
13C 6 13 6 7
14C 6 14 6 8
35Cl 17 35 17 18
37Cl 17 37 17 20
234U 92 234 92 142
235U 92 235 92 143
238U 92 238 92 146

 

APLICATIONS OF ISOTOPES: Isotopes have various applications in science and different fields of technologies and medicine. Isotopes are used in diagnosis , radiotherapy and treatment of various diseases.The most important applications of isotopes are as follow

a) Radiotherapy: Isotopes like P-32 and Sr- 90 emit less penetrating beta radiations which are used for treatment of skin cancer. Co-60 emit strongly penetrating gamma radiations which are used for treatment of internal cancer.

b)Tracer for Diagnosis and Medicine: Radioisotopes are used as tracers in medicine to diagnose the presence of tumor in human body. For example I-131 is used for diagnosis of goiter in thyroid gland. Similarly technitium is used to monitor the growth of bone.

c)Archeological and Geological uses: The radioactive isotopes are used to estimate the age of fossils like dead plants , animals and stones, etc The age determination of very old objects based on the half-lives of the radioactive isotope called radioactive isotope-dating. For example radioactive C- 14 is used for age determination of old carbon containing objects called fossils, this process is known as radioactive dating or carbon-dating.

d) Chemical Reactions and Structure Determination: The radioactive isotopes like C-14 are used in chemical reactions to follow a radioactive element during a chemical reaction and ultimately to determine the structure of the compound. For example CO2 which is produced by plants during photosynthesis to prepare

e)Application In Power Generation: Radioactive isotopes like U-235 are used to generate electricity by carrying out controlled nuclear fission reactions in nuclear reactors. For example, when U-235 is bombarded with slow moving neutrons , the U-235 nucleus breaks up to produceBa-139 and Kr-94 along with 3 neutrons and large amount of energy. Nuclear reaction is given by.

92U235+ 0n1  → 56 Ba139 + 36 Kr94+ 30 n1 + energy.

This energy is called atomic energy and is used to convert water into steam in boilers. Then the steam drives the turbines to generate electricity.

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