Data Organization and Data Analysis
DATA : Data can be defined as the information such as names, dates or values made from observations and experimentation. “OR” Recorded observations is called data. “OR” Collection of facts and figures is called data.
In order to formulate and then to test hypotheses, scientists collect and organize data. Prior to conducting an experiment, it is very important for a scientist to describe data collection methods. It ensures the quality of experiment. Data is organized in different formats like graphics, tables, flow charts, maps and diagrams.
Data analysis is necessary to prove or disprove a hypothesis by experimentation. It is done through the application of statistical methods i.e. ratio and proportion.
Ratio: When a relation between two numbers e.g. ‘a’ and ‘b’ is expressed in terms of quotient (a/b), it is called the ratio of one number to the other. Ratio may be expressed by putting a division (÷) or colon (:) mark between the two numbers. For example the ratio between 50 malarial patients and 150 normal persons is 1:3.
Proportion: Proportion means to join two equal ratios by the sign of equality (=). For example; a:b = c:d is a proportion between the two ratios. This proportion may also be expressed as a:b::c:d. When three values in a proportion are known, the fourth one (X) can be calculated.
For example, a biologist can calculate how many birds will get malaria when he allows infected mosquitoes to bite 100 healthy sparrows. If in a previous experiment 14 out of 20 got malaria.
It means 70 out of 100 sparrows get malaria
Statistics are thus a means of summarizing data through the calculation of mean value. This step is very important as it transforms raw data into information, which can be used to summarize and report results.