Cleavage: The splitting or breakage of the bond between two atoms due to absorption of heat or light energy is called cleavage.
Types of cleavage: there are two types of cleavage.
- Homolytic cleavage: Equal breakage of bond between two atoms is called homolytic cleavage. As a result of homolytic cleavage free radicals are formed.
Example: H2 + energy → 2H◎
Heterolytic cleavage: unequal breakage of bond between two atoms is called heterolytic cleavage. Example: HCl+energy → H+ + Cl–