Class 9 Biology Chapter 1 Notes – Introduction to Biology



Question#1) Define Science and Biology?

Answer: Science: Word science is derived from scientia means knowledge. Science is the study in which observations are made, experiments are done and logical conclusions are drawn in order to understand the principles of nature.

“OR”  The knowledge obtained through observations and experiments is called science.

Biology: The word “biology” derived from two Greek words “Bios” meaning life and “Logos” meaning study, so the scientific study of life is called biology. OR “The study of living things is called biology”. Biology includes several branches. Three major branches of biology are given below.
Question#2) Write a note on major branches of Biology?

Answer: Botany –Greek: botane means plant.
“Branch of biology which deals with the scientific study of plants is called Botany”.
Zoology – Greek: Zoon means animals.
“ The branch of biology that deals with animals and animal life, including the study of the structure, physiology, development, and classification of animals”.
Microbiology – Greek: mikros means small.
“The branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effects on other living organisms”
Question#3) Write a note on specialized branches of biology?

Answer: Branches of Biology: Biology is further divided into several sub branches some of them are given below,
Morphology – Greek: Morph means structure
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of form and  structure of organisms is called morphology”.
Anatomy – Greek: Anatome means dissection / cutting
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of internal structure of organisms is called anatomy”
Physiology – Latin: Physiologia means function
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of the functions of living organisms and their parts is called physiology”
Embryology / Developmental Biology – Greek: Embryon means growth.
: It is the study of the development of an embryo to new individual.
Cell Biology/ Cytology – Greek: Cyto means cell
“The study of structure and function of the cell and cell organelles is called cell biology.”it also deal with cell division.
Histology – Greek: Histos means tissue
“A branch of biology which deals with the microscopic study of tissue is called histology”
Paleontology – Greek: Palaios means primitive/fossil/being ancient.
It is the study of fossils, which are the remains of extinct organisms. Paleontology has further two branches, a) paleobotany: Study of plants fossils, b) Paleozoology: study of animals fossils.
Immunobiology /Immunology – Latin: Immunis means body defence system/not affected by disease.
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of the immune system in body of organisms against diseases is called immunology.
Entomology – Greek: Entomon means Insect.
The study of insects is called entomology.
Genetics – Greek: Genos means race/kind/ancestry/heredity/origin.
The study of genes and their role in inheritance is called genetics.  OR  “Branch of biology which deals with the study of inheritance is called genetics.
Microbiology – Greek: mikros means small
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of small and microscopic organisms (microorganisms/microbes) and their interactions with other living things is called microbiology.
Biotechnology –It deals with the practical application of living organisms to make substances for the welfare of mankind.

Environmental Biology / Ecology – Greek: Oikos means house/habitation: It deals with the study of the interactions between the organisms and their environment.
Parisitology – Greek: Parasitos means some body that eats another’s food/grains
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of parasites is called parasItology. Parasites are the organisms that take food and shelter from living hosts and, in return, harm them. E.g: Cuscuta, bed bug, etc.
Social biology – Latin: Socialis means companion : This branch deals with the study of social behaviour of the animals that make societies.   OR
“A branch of biology which deals with the study of those organisms which are living together in a community and interact each other is called social biology, e.g. social insects (ants, bees, and termites), birds flock, humans and fishes living in groups.
Pharmacology – Greek: Pharmakon means drugs  ; It is the study of drugs and their effects on the systems of human body.

“A branch of biology which deals with the study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines is called pharmacology.

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