Chapter 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF CHEMISTRY – 9th Class Chemistry Notes

Chapter 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF CHEMISTRY – 9th Class Chemistry Notes

Question#1) Write a short note on history of chemistry?

Answer:History of Chemistry: Chemistry derived its name from word alchemy, which is a European word derived from the Arabic word al-kimia. Alkemai is the old name of Egypt.

The word alcheme, khame, kheme means black earth. It refers to the black soil crust of Egypt. When the word chemistry shifted to Europe, it became alchemistry and finally chemistry. According to some chemists kimia is a Persian word which means gold.

This word is revolutionized by muslim scientists. Muslim scientists were interested in the conversion of bases metals lead, copper into gold, that’s why chemistry is also called the art of metal working. Thus the Muslim scientists laid down the foundation of the modern chemistry. Jabir ibn Hayyan was the first Muslim scientist who defined alchemia or chemistry and that’s why he is called the father of chemistry.

 

Q2) Define science and chemistry? What are the major branches of chemistry?

Answer: Science: word science is derived from “scientia” means “knowledge”. The knowledge that provides understanding of this world and how it works is called science. The knowledge obtained through observations and experiments is called science.

Chemistry: The branch of science that deal with the composition, structure, properties and reactions of matter is called chemistry.

Major Branches of Chemistry: The major branches of chemistry are as follows:

1) Physical chemistry:  Physical Chemistry is defined as the branch of chemistry that deals with the relationship between the composition and physical properties of matter along with the changes in them.

Scope: The properties such as structure of atoms or formation of molecules behavior of gases, liquids and solids and the study of the effect of temperature or radiation on matter are studied under this branch.

2) Organic Chemistry:

Organic Chemistry is the study of covalent compounds of carbon and hydrogen (hydrocarbons) and their derivatives.

Occurrence and scope: Organic compounds occur naturally and are also synthesized in the laboratories. Organic chemists determine the structure and properties of these naturally occurring as well as synthesized compounds. Scope of this branch covers petroleum, petrochemicals and pharmaceutical industries.

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