Cell as an Open System A cell works as an open system i.e. it takes in substances needed for its metabolic activities through its cell membrane. Then it performs the metabolic processes assigned to it. Products and by-products are formed in metabolism. Cell either utilizes the products or transports them to other cells. The by-products …
Relationships Between Cell Structures and Cell Functions Bodies of all living organisms are composed of one or more cells. Each cell perform a specific function. It means cells are specialized in their function. It depends upon the structure of cell.
Comparison Among Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells The distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is considered to be the most important distinction among groups of organisms. Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Differences in cellular structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes include the presence of mitochondria and chloroplasts, the cell …
Comparison between plant and animal cell Differences — Similarities — Animal Cell Plant Cell Cell wall Absent Present (formed of cellulose) Shape Round (irregular shape) Rectangular (fixed shape) Vacuole One or more small vacuoles (much smaller than plant cells). One, large central vacuole taking up 90% of cell volume. Centrioles Present in all animal cells …
Vacuoles Vacuoles are fluid filled single membrane bounded organelles. Numbers:- cells have many small vacuoles in their cytoplasm, however when a plant cell matures its small vacuoles fuses to form a large single vacuole in centre.
Centrioles A centriole is a small set of microtubules arranged in a specific way. “Or” Centrioles are hollow cylindrical organelles found in the cells of animals and many unicellular organisms. Numbers:- each cell contain 2 centrioles. Both are collectively called as centrosome.
LYSOSOMES:- (LYSO means Splitting, Break down or dissolution and Soma means Body) These are single membrane bounded organelles involved in the break down of materials.
GOLGI APPARATUS OR GOLGI BODIES OR GOLGI COMPLEX OR DICTYOSOMES:- A Set of flattened sacs stacked over each other in eukaryotic cell is called Golgi body. Golgi apparatus is named according to discoverer name.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R) (endo means inner, plasma means fluid and reticulum means network of channels) :- Endoplasmic Reticulum is a network of interconnected channels that extends from cell membrane to nuclear envelope.
Plastids (Plastos means molded) Plastids are membrane bounded organelles found in plants and photosynthetic protists( algae) Types of Plastids:- there are three main types of plastids.
Mitochondria or chondriosome (singular mitochondrion ,. Mitos means thread and chondrion means granules).an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
Ribosomes (The protein synthesizing factory) :- (ribo from ribose or ribonucleic acid and soma means body) : Ribonucleic acids are small granular bodies involved in protein synthesis.
NUCLEUS:- (Nucleus or kernal means central thing) It is the main organ in a eukaryotic cell that controls functions of all other organelles. Location :- In animals cells it is present in the center, while in plant cells it is present at a side due to large vacuole.
Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton is a series of intercellular proteins that help a cell with shape, support, and movement. Cytoskeleton has three main structural components: Micro-filaments, intermediate filaments, and micro tubules. Micro tubules are composed of tubulin proteins and are used by cells to hold their shape . They are also major component of cilia and …
Cytoplasm The semi transparent and semi viscous substance present between cell membrane and nucleus is called cytoplasm. Chemical composition:- it contain water , organic compounds (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids), enzymes and inorganic salts.
Cell membrane or plasma membrane A thin membrane covering cytoplasm of a cell is called plasma membrane. Occurrence:- occur in all living cells. Plasma Membrane Versus Cell Membrane: plasma membrane and cell membrane are not the same. They are different from each other. Plasma membrane as the name indicate is the membrane that surrounds the …
CELL WALL Definition: The outer rigid protective layer of plants , bacteria and fungal cells is called cell wall. Occurrence: present in plants , bacteria and fungi.
Cell Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life (living organisms) Ancient Greeks for the first time organized biological data about cells. ARISTOTLE;- He state that plant and animals are somewhat related in their structures. ROBERT HOOK:- He discovered cell in 1665.
Microscope An optical instrument used for viewing very small objects, such as mineral samples or animal or plant cells, typically magnified several hundred times. Microscopy:- Microscopy is the use of microscope to observe minute living organisms.
Biodiversity Biodiversity: The term “biodiversity” has been derived from ‘bio’ and ‘diversity’. Biodiversity is a measure of the variety of organisms present in different ecosystems or earth surface. Flora: Diversity of plants in an ecosystem is called flora. Fauna: Diversity of animals in an ecosystem is called flora.