Biological Method - An Overview - Home of Knowledge

Biological Method – An Overview

Method used to solve biological method.

Definition

Any unusual happening is surrounding of living organism is called as biological problem.

Problem

Population

Deforestation

Soil erosion

Acid Rain

  1. Observation

All the information which are made or collected by a scientist with 5 senses i.e. vision, hearing, smelling taste and touch.

Types

Observation maybe qualitative or quantitative.

  1. Hypothesis
  • Tentative observation of problem.
  • Tentative solution of problem.
  • Rough guess statement based upon observation is hypothesis.
  • Ways of formulating hypothesis
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  • Religious or philosophical thoughts.
  • Comparison or analogy.
  • Discovery of one thing while looking for another.
  1. Reasoning

There are logical statements that explain hypothesis.

Types

There are two types of reasoning

  • Deductive reasoning
  • Inductive reasoning
  1. Experiment

Scientific procedure used to check validity of hypothesis.

Groups

During experiment, 2 groups are selected

  • Control group
  • Experimental group
  1. Conclusion

Conclusion and made after calculating differences between experimental and control group.

  1. Theory

When series of hypothesis supporting the result of experiment it acquires shape of theory.

  1. Law of principle

Many scientist take theory as a challenge and exert greater effort to disprove theory. Such approach is skeptical approach. If the theory contribute to be supported by experimental evidence. It become a low and called irrefutable theory.

E.g.

Hardy Wein Berg theorem

Mendelian

Role of Deductive and inductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning

The type of reasoning which moves from general to specific facts.

E.g.

  • All birds have wings, if Sparrow has wings, it means that it is a bird.
  • All carnivores eat meat, if lion is a carnivore then it also eat meat.
  • Invertebrates have no vertebral column so, if starfish is invertebrate then it has no vertebral column.

Inductive reasoning

This type of reasoning with generally proceeds from specific to general facts.

 E.g.

  • Horse is a herbivore because it eats grass, it means all herbivores eat grass.
  • It Sparrow has wings and it is a bird, it means all birds have wings.
  • Tracheophytes need sunlight for photosynthesis, solved green plants need sunlight for photosynthesis.

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