Method used to solve biological method.
Any unusual happening is surrounding of living organism is called as biological problem.
All the information which are made or collected by a scientist with 5 senses i.e. vision, hearing, smelling taste and touch.
Observation maybe qualitative or quantitative.
- Tentative observation of problem.
- Tentative solution of problem.
- Rough guess statement based upon observation is hypothesis.
- Ways of formulating hypothesis
- Religious or philosophical thoughts.
- Comparison or analogy.
- Discovery of one thing while looking for another.
There are logical statements that explain hypothesis.
There are two types of reasoning
- Deductive reasoning
- Inductive reasoning
Scientific procedure used to check validity of hypothesis.
During experiment, 2 groups are selected
- Control group
- Experimental group
Conclusion and made after calculating differences between experimental and control group.
When series of hypothesis supporting the result of experiment it acquires shape of theory.
- Law of principle
Many scientist take theory as a challenge and exert greater effort to disprove theory. Such approach is skeptical approach. If the theory contribute to be supported by experimental evidence. It become a low and called irrefutable theory.
Hardy Wein Berg theorem
Role of Deductive and inductive reasoning
The type of reasoning which moves from general to specific facts.
- All birds have wings, if Sparrow has wings, it means that it is a bird.
- All carnivores eat meat, if lion is a carnivore then it also eat meat.
- Invertebrates have no vertebral column so, if starfish is invertebrate then it has no vertebral column.
This type of reasoning with generally proceeds from specific to general facts.
- Horse is a herbivore because it eats grass, it means all herbivores eat grass.
- It Sparrow has wings and it is a bird, it means all birds have wings.
- Tracheophytes need sunlight for photosynthesis, solved green plants need sunlight for photosynthesis.