INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY
- Word science is derived from scientia means _______
2. Word “biology” derived from two _______ words.
3. Greek word botane means_______
D. All of the above
4. Scientific study of animals is called ________
5. A branch of biology which deals with the study of the functions of living organisms and their parts is called_________________
6. Greek: Histos means________
7. The study of______ is called entomology.
8. _________are the living organisms that obtain shelter and food from other living hosts and harm them in return.
9. Greek Pharmakon means____________
10. The science of cultivating crops like wheat, maize, rice and farming of animals that gives milk and meat is called _______.
11. DVM is abbreviation of _______.
A. Doctor of veterinary mammals
B. Doctor of veterinary medicines
C. Department of veterinary mammals
D. Divisional veterinary museum
12. Latin word hortus means _________
13. __________ bron in 721 AD and died in 815 AD.
A. Abdul Malik
B. Ahmad Kundi
C. Bu Ali Sina
D. Jabir Bin Hayyan
E. Ibn Al Haitham
14. Jabir Bin Hayyan was born in __________
15. Jabir Bin Hayyan Practiced medicine in _______
D. All of the above
E. None of these
16. “Al-Nabatat” and “Al-Haywan” are famous books of _________
A. Abdul Malik
B. Dr. Bu Ali Sina
C. Jabir Bin Hayyan
D. Ahmad Abdali
17. Abdul Malik Asmai died in _______
A. 828 AD
B. 871 AD
C. 921 AD
D. 971 AD
18. “Al-Abil (camel)”, “Al-Khail (horse)”, “Al-Wahoosh (animal)”, and “Khalq al-ansan” are written by ______
A. Bu Ali Sina
B. Ibn Al Haitham
C. Dr. Salam
D. Abdul Malik Asmai
E. Jabir Bin Hayan
19. Al Ibil means _________
20. Al-Khail means _______
E. king of forest
21. Bu Ali Sina (980 – 1037 AD) is honoured as the founder of _________
A. laboratory tools
C. toxic chemicals
D. all the above
22. “Al-Qanun-fi al-Tib” known as the canon of medicine in West is written by __________
A. Abul Qasim Al_Zahravi
B. Abul Qasim Fazlul Haq
C. Bu Ali Sina
23. Out of 92 elements, ___________ are called bioelements.
24. _________ is the smallest entity of matter that can enter into a chemical reaction.
D. Subatomic Particle
25. Only ______ elements make 99% of the body mass of almost all types of living organisms.
26. K (potassium), S (sulphur), Cl (chlorine), Na (sodium), Mg (magnessium), Fe (iron), Cu (copper), Mn (manganese), Zn (zinc), & Iodine (I) collectively make _________ % of the total mass of almost all living organisms.
27. _______ is essential for hemoglobin (red blood cells).
D. Vitamin C
Role of bioelements: Mainly carbon, hydrogen and oxygen make most structures such as, sugars, starches and other energy molecules while nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur make proteins.
Other elements are needed in less quantity. E.g. Iron is essential for haemoglobin (red blood cells), calcium for teeth and bones. Sodium and potassium are important for sending messages along nerves. Zn work as a coenzyme. Magnessium help in photosynthesis, etc.
2) M0lecular level: Atoms combined to form molecules.
Biomolecules: molecules that are present in living organisms are called biomolecules. Biomolecules are of two types.
- Micromolecules: molecules with low molecular weight are called micromolecules. e.g. glucose, water etc.
- Macro molecules: Molecules with high molecular weights are called macromolecules. e.g. starch, proteins, lipids etc.
Criterion for classifying biological molecules: Biological molecules are classified on the basis of molecular size. The small sized molecules are placed in micromolecules while large sized molecules are placed in macromolecules. In short words the micro molecules combined to form macro molecules.
Difference between molecule and biomolecule:
A molecule is the smallest unit of substance usually non living.
Biomolecule is the smallest particle of a living substance.
Molecules may be organic or inorganic.
Biomolecules are organic.
Molecule can consist of any element found in periodic table.
Biomolecules consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium and phosphorous mainly.
Molecules combined to form compounds. These may be ionic, covalent, dative, etc.
Biomolecules may be categorized as monomers or polymers. These are organic in nature having covalent linkage.
- Organelle level and Cell level:
Organelle level: The building blocks of a cell are called organelle. Biomolecules (Macro molecules) combined to form organelles. Organelles are basically sub cellular structures. Each and every organelle perform a specific function. For example, mitochondria is involved in respiration, chloroplast is responsible for photosynthesis, etc.
Cell level: Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. Organelles combined to form a cell. Some organisms consists of only one cell like bacteria, protists, etc. while other consists of many cells. E.g;Human.
4) Tissue level: Tissue a collections of similar cells working together to perform a specific job. E.g, epithelial tissues, connective tissues, etc.
5) Organ and Organ system level:
Organ: Two or more types of tissues work together to complete a specific task is called organ. E.g, heart, stomach, brain, etc.
Organ system (system) : several organs working in union to achieve a common goal is called organ system. E.g, digestive system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, etc.
Protons and neutrons are located inside nucleus of atom while electrons orbit in energy levels (electrons shells) around the nucleus. The number of electrons in the outermost shell determines the manner in which atoms react with each other.
A molecule is the smallest part of a compound that retains the properties of that compound.
6) Organism level or Individual level : several organ systems functioning together forms an organism. E.g, human, dog, tree, frog, mustard,etc.
7) Population level: A group of organisms of the same species located at the same place, in the same time and sharing the same resources is called population. Individual organisms of the same species working together to achieve a common goal. Examples: population of human, population of mustard, population of frogs, etc.
A species is defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
8) Community level: A community is an assemblage of different populations, interacting with one another within the same environment. A forest may be considered as a community. It includes different plant, microorganisms, fungi and animal species.
Habitat means the area of the environment in which organism lives.
9) Biosphere level:
The part of the Earth inhabited by organisms’ communities is known as biosphere. It constitutes all ecosystems (areas where living organisms interact with the nonliving components of the environment) and is also called the zone of life on Earth.
Question#9) Write a note on cellular organization of life?
Answer? CELLULAR ORGANIZATIONS: The arrangement of cells in a specific passion to make an entire living organism is called Cellular organization. Cellular organization are of three types.
1) Unicellular Organization: In this type of organization an organism is composed of only one cell. Those type of organisms are called unicellular organisms. Examples: Amoeba, Paramecium, and Euglena, Bacteria, etc.
- Colonial Organization: In colonial type of cellular organization, many unicellular organisms live together but do not have any division of labour among them. Each unicellular organism in a colony lives its own life and does not depend on other cells for its vital requirements. Volvox is a green alga found in water that shows colonial organization. Hundreds of Volvox cells make a colony.
3) Multicellular organization: In multicellular organization, cells are organized in the form of tissues, organs and organ systems. Frog and mustard are the familiar examples of multicellular organization.
Question#10) What do you know about Mustard plant?
Answer: Mustard plant: Mustard plant (scientific name: Brassica campestris) is sown in winter and it produces seeds at the end of winter. The plant body is used as vegetable and its seeds are used for extracting oil. The organs of the body can be divided into two groups on the basis of their functions. Root, stem, branches and leaves are the vegetative organs, which do not take part in the sexual reproduction of the plant. Flowers are the reproductive parts of the plant because they take part in sexual reproduction and produce fruits and seeds.
- Common name … Mustard
KINGDOM … Plantae
DIVISION … Tracheophyta
CLASS … Dicotyledonae
ORDER … Capparales
FAMILY … Brassicaceae
GENUS … Brassica
SPECIES … Campestris
SCIENTIFIC NAME … Brassica Campestris
Question#11) Write a detailed note on Frog?
Answer: Frog: Frog (scientific name: Rana tigrina) shows the multicellular organization. The body is made of organ systems and each organ system consists of related organs. All the organs are made of specific tissues (epithelial, glandular, muscular, nervous etc). Some organs and organ systems of frog have been described in the practical activity given next.
Common name … Frog
KINGDOM … Animalia
PHYLUM … Chordata
CLASS … Amphibia
ORDER … Salientia (Anura)
FAMILY … Ranidae
GENUAL … Rana
SPECIES … Tigrina
SCIENTIFIC NAME … Rana tigrina.
2) Common name … Man
Question#12) Arrange these structures in order of lower level of organization to upper level and write the level against each structure. Neuron, nervous system, electron, man, mass of neurons, carbon, mitochondria, brain, protein?
Answer: Electron ( sub-atomic level) → Carbon (atomic level) → Protein (molecular level) → Mitochondrion (organelle level) → Neuron (cell level) → Mass of neuron (tissue level) → Brain (organ level) → Nervous system (organ system level) → Man (individual or organism level).