Enzymes and Enzymology   Question#1) Write a short note on enzyme? Answer: Enzyme: Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (speed up) biochemical reactions by lowering its activation energy and are not changed during the reaction. All enzymes are catalysts but all catalysts are not enzymes. Only biocatalysts are called enzymes. Word enzyme was first used by a […]

Cell Cycle – Mitosis and Meiosis

Interesting information about this chapter and introduction;- All organisms consists of cells. An adult human being has approximately 1, 00,000 billion cells, all originate from a single cell, the fertilized egg cell or zygote. Cells arise from free existing cells as a result of cell division (cell reproduction) . Cells reproduce to produce new cells, […]


CELLS AND TISSUES OR CELL BIOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY   Question#1) Define Microscopy? What are different types of Microscope?   Answer:- Microscope; An optical instrument used for viewing very small objects, such as mineral samples or animal or plant cells, typically magnified several hundred times.   Microscopy:- Microscopy is the use of microscope to observe minute living […]

Human Impacts on Biodiversity and Conservation with Special Reference to Endangered Species of Pakistan

Conservation of biodiversity: Conservation is the protection, preservation, management and restoration of wildlife and natural resources such as forests and water. Types of Conservation: There are two types of conservation. Insitu conservation:Conservation of habitats, species and ecosystems where they naturally occur. Ex-situ conservation:The conservation of elements of biodiversity out of their natural habitat.is refered to […]

Status of Virus in Five Kingdom Classification – Short Answer

Status of Viruses: Viruses are at the borderline of living and nonliving. They show characteristics both like living and non living. Living characteristics of viruses: **They have nucliec acids (DNA OR RNA). ** They show reproduction. ** show sensitivity. Non-Living characteristics: **They can be crystallized. ** In non living environment they show no sensitivity. ** They are A-cellular.

Two, Three and Five Kingdoms Systems of Classification

Two, Three and Five Kingdoms Systems of Classification TWO-KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION: It is the oldest system of classification put forwarded by Aristotle, the father of biology. kingdom plantae:All organisms that can prepare food from simple inorganic materials and thus can store energy, are autotrophs and are included in kingdom plantae. According to this system, bacteria, fungi […]

Short History of Classification System

History of classification systems: The earliest known system of classification of organisms comes from the Greek philosopher Aristotle. He classified all living organisms known at that time as either in the group ‘plantae’ or in ‘animalia’.

Taxonomic Hierarchy

Taxonomic Hierarchy: The groups into which organisms are classified are known as taxonomic categories or taxa (singular “taxon”).   “OR”  Any group in the taxonomic categories or taxanomic classification is termed as taxon. A ladder like structure formed by taxanomic categories is known as Taxanomic hierarchy. All organisms are divided into five kingdoms. So kingdom is the largest taxon. On […]

Importance of Biodiversity – Short Answer

Importance of Biodiversity: Biodiversity provides food for humans for example some vegetable plants, fruits, etc. A significant proportion of drugs are derived, directly or indirectly, from biological sources. For example some anti-cancerous drugs are obtained from Taxus bacata . A wide range of industrial materials e.g. building materials, fibers, dyes, resins, gums, adhesives, rubber and oil are […]

Discovery of Antimalarial (Anti-periodic) drug

Discovery of Antimalarial (Anti-periodic) drug   “OR”  Treatment of Malaria Quinine (the antimalarial drug) was accidentally discovered in 17th century. According to one of the legend an Indian was lost in the jungle of the Andes ( Andes are the world’s longest exposed mountain range. They lie as the continuous chain of highlands along the western […]

Science, Scientific Method, Biological Problem and Biological Method

science and Scientific method   Science: word science is derived from scientia means knowledge. Science is the systemized knowledge derived from observations and experiments. “OR” The knowledge that gives understanding about this world and how it works is called science. “OR” The systemized knowledge obtained by observations and experiments is called science.

Biological Method – An Overview

Method used to solve biological method. Definition Any unusual happening is surrounding of living organism is called as biological problem. Problem Population Deforestation Soil erosion Acid Rain

Phyletic Lineage

Phyletic Lineage Definition It is associate unbroken series of species against in associate root to descendant sequence with every later species having evolve from one that now preceded it. Number of living organism Till now we have 2.5 million of species of animals and plants. All to an estimate 5.3 million species present over Earth. […]

Frog – An example of Multicellular Organization

Frog (scientific name: Rana tigrina) shows the multicellular organization. The body is made of organ systems and each organ system consists of related organs. All the organs are made of specific tissues (epithelial, glandular, muscular, nervous etc). Some organs and organ systems of frog have been described in the practical activity given next.

Mustard Plant – Short Note

Mustard plant: Mustard plant (scientific name: Brassica campestris) is sown in winter and it produces seeds at the end of winter. The plant body is used as vegetable and its seeds are used for extracting oil. The organs of the body can be divided into two groups on the basis of their functions. Root, stem, branches […]


CELLULAR ORGANIZATIONS: The arrangement of cells in a specific passion to make an entire living organism is called Cellular organization. Cellular organization are of three types. 1) Unicellular Organization: In this type of organization an organism is composed of only one cell. Those type of organisms are called unicellular organisms. Examples: Amoeba, Paramecium, and Euglena, […]

Biotechnology – Questions and Answers

Biotechnology – Questions and Answers   Question 1: Define biotechnology and describe its importance. Also write a detailed note on modern biotechnology or genetic engineering? Describe the achievements of genetic engineering in medicine, agriculture and environment. Or what is biotechnology. Write a detailed note on scope and importance of biotechnology? Answer: Definition of Biotechnology: Biotechnology […]